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Writings based on Objectivism, the philosophy of Ayn Rand

Ayn Rand's most popular novels are Atlas Shrugged and The Fountainhead, which present her philosophy, Objectivism, in vivid characterizations.

  Metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, esthetics, and  politics are the five main branches of philosophy that she identifies. Utilizing her methodology, one can be rational about all aspects of life. These essays present my understanding of Objectivism.

Older Essays

This is Your Mind

Independence Day Special 2005

Copyright Issues Statement

Independence Day Special 2011:

 Jesus or Ayn Rand?

Don't Blame Wall Street

Governments and Individual Rights

Anarcho-Capitalism rebuttal

Doctors and Individual Rights

Internet Freedom VS On-line Piracy

Laws Must be Specific to Preserve Freedom

To Students of Objectivism

Kant as Founder of Modern Art

Thinking in Terms of Principles

The Purpose of Art

On Objectivity -- The Method of Thought

Applications of Philosophy

Happiness by a Proper Standard

Morality and War

Induction and Anarchism

Immigration and Applied Egoism

Independence Day 2012:

  Losing the Battle

On Civil Society

Batman and Justice

Paul Ryan and Objectivism

Philosophy in the Workplace

Articulating Freedom

The Argument for Freedom


Black Friday Special, The Morality of Profit

Intellectual Property Rights

How The Internet Works

Carnegie Museum of Art and Natural History

The Morality of Copyrights and Patents


Freedom of Speech -- a Sacred Right

Objective Value

Teleological Measurements




Ayn Rand as a Moral Hero

Moral Integrity

On Dualism

Protest NSA Spying

The Objectivist Trilogy

The DIM Hypothesis

Tolerance and DIM

Individual Rights

How We Know



































Date: Wed, 9 Sep 1998
Time and Infinity
Thomas M. Miovas, Jr.

Does the universe add up to nothing?

A few years ago, I posted a series of essays to another forum
about a physicist who claimed that everything is really nothing,
because if you add up all the known energies, you get -- zero!
Now, he was wrong about everything being nothing, but it is true
that for any given change, something else has to change (you
can't get something from nothing, even for motion or change), so
the mathematical signs of the energies / motions cancel out --
leading to zero, if you add them all up. Of course, you have to
understand energy as a concept of motion (or change) to see
this, which is controversial.

If time is understood to be a measure of motion (change), as I
wrote about several months ago, then time *has* to be local,
because you can only measure the changes occurring immediately
around you. Even if one measures, say, photons from a distant
galaxy, the measurement occurs locally in actuality. One then
infers, from know physics, that the photon came from a distant

I think the idea of "circular time" comes about because the
universe as a whole is finite, since it has an identity -- it is
something specific, which we get from our first perception.
Integrate this with the idea that existence is a full plenum,
and any specific change must come about due to something else
changing (or something else changing because the "first change"
took place). Any "first change" (you can start wherever you
like) "evolves" into a series of changes, like a ripple
throughout the entire universe, which will eventually meet and
cancel itself out -- effectively "resetting" the process.

For example, let's say one takes two ball bearings with an
explosive device between them, and places them in deep space.
The explosive is detonated and the ball bearings fly away from
one another. Due to Newton's laws of motion, they will have
equal but opposite motions. They can't literally continue in a
straight line away from one another, because the universe is
finite, though unbounded, so they will eventually meet one
another, and stop -- provided, of course, neither gains nor
loses energy in their travels. If the ball bearings were being
used as a clock, once they stopped, you would no longer be able
to keep time with them -- effectively, one would have to start
the clock all over again.

Matt Sissel Fine Art

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Thomas M. Miovas, Jr.



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Proud to be an Objectivist -- one who follows Ayn Rand's philosophy of Objectivism: I've earned it.