Applied Philosophy Online .com 

Where Ideas Are Brought Down to Earth!

Writings based on Objectivism, the philosophy of Ayn Rand

Ayn Rand's most popular novels are Atlas Shrugged and The Fountainhead, which present her philosophy, Objectivism, in vivid characterizations.

  Metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, esthetics, and  politics are the five main branches of philosophy that she identifies. Utilizing her methodology, one can be rational about all aspects of life. These essays present my understanding of Objectivism.

Older Essays

This is Your Mind

Independence Day Special 2005

Copyright Issues Statement

Independence Day Special 2011:

 Jesus or Ayn Rand?

Don't Blame Wall Street

Governments and Individual Rights

Anarcho-Capitalism rebuttal

Doctors and Individual Rights

Internet Freedom VS On-line Piracy

Laws Must be Specific to Preserve Freedom

To Students of Objectivism

Kant as Founder of Modern Art

Thinking in Terms of Principles

The Purpose of Art

On Objectivity -- The Method of Thought

Applications of Philosophy

Happiness by a Proper Standard

Morality and War

Induction and Anarchism

Immigration and Applied Egoism

Independence Day 2012:

  Losing the Battle

On Civil Society

Batman and Justice

Paul Ryan and Objectivism

Philosophy in the Workplace

Articulating Freedom

The Argument for Freedom


Black Friday Special, The Morality of Profit

Intellectual Property Rights

How The Internet Works

Carnegie Museum of Art and Natural History

The Morality of Copyrights and Patents


Freedom of Speech -- a Sacred Right

Objective Value

Teleological Measurements




Ayn Rand as a Moral Hero

Moral Integrity

On Dualism

Protest NSA Spying

The Objectivist Trilogy

The DIM Hypothesis

Tolerance and DIM

Individual Rights

How We Know




































This page is intended to be a reference page for commonly used terms in the art and framing industry, especially as these relate to various means of creating a reproduction of an original work of art.

The original means the work of art created by the artist. These can be oil paintings, water color paintings, pastel drawings, pencil drawings, etchings, scratch-boards, crayons, statues, architecture, etc. Even some lithographs and serigraphs are considered originals, but only if the artist has manipulated the plates, screens or colors himself; usually making each print slightly different from the others in the series.

A poster generally means an inexpensive reproduction that has advertisement panels as part of the imagery. Though posters can use lithographic or serigraphic processes (sometimes referred to as poster prints), the inks or dyes are not generally light-fast, meaning they will fade out over a relatively short period of time. In general, the paper substrate of a poster is made from wood pulp, which will deteriorate by giving off acid fumes, leading the colors of the poster to fade more rapidly. A poster will usually have a considerable number of copies which can range in the millions, so they are not limited in the number of copies run off the press. Conservation framing techniques can extend the life of a poster.

The term print generally refers to reproductions made by pressing inks or dyes onto a conservation quality paper or canvas substrate made of cotton fibers that are acid free and won't deteriorate. Generally, prints are made using light-fast inks or dyes that won't fade over time, provided the prints are not kept in harsh conditions. Lithographs, serigraphs, and giclees are types of prints used in the art industry.

Since most prints are limited edition types of reproductions, meaning few are made relative to the market for them, they tend to be of higher prices than posters and can even increase in value over time. After the prints have been run off the press, the plates or screens are destroyed, insuring that no more images of that edition will be made. Sometimes, however, another print run of the original image will be run off at a later date that is usually a different size or a different process than the original limited edition series.

Limited edition prints come in several varieties: Signed and Numbered, which means the artist signed the print itself and numbered it sequentially; Artist proof, which normally means the first ten percent or so of the edition run that is inspected by the artist, then signed and numbered sequentially with an "AP" appearing after the edition number. Artist proofs are considered more valuable than signed and numbered prints due to the artist inspection. Usually one will see two signatures on a limited edition print, the signature on the original reproduced onto the print, and a signature actually placed onto the print itself. There are also press proofs, which are inspected by the press operators and reproduction color experts to insure color fidelity of the print run; these are generally not for sale.

An open edition print is not a limited run and the plates or screens are not destroyed, but the higher quality materials are (sometimes) used versus posters.

 It is highly recommended that conservation quality techniques are used when framing prints, due to their initial value and to preserve that value for possible future re-sale of those prints.

A lithograph is a reproduction process using metal or stone plates to press different colored inks or dyes onto paper or canvas. Generally, at least four different plates are used that are not all the same image, but rather areas of the original image that overlap with one another as they are pressed onto the paper. The different colors then mix on the paper, reproducing all the colors of the original. Often, four separate plates are not enough to regain the color fidelity of the original, so print publishers use as many as they need to reproduce the color detail.

A serigraph is a reproduction process using various screens through which the colors are pressed onto paper or canvas. Like a lithograph, the various images on the screens overlap the colors which mix on the paper or canvas, reproducing the color fidelity of the original. Generally, the inks or dyes are thicker for serigraphs than for lithographs, coming closer in consistency to paint, thus giving serigraphs a look and feel that is closer to the original (especially if the original was a oil painting). Depending on the colors of the original, serigraphs are made from more numerous screens than the number of plates used to make a lithograph, generally making them more expensive but also more exacting.

A giclee or giclée [pronounced gzee-clay] is a high-grade reproduction using a digitized image that is sprayed onto the paper or canvas with a fine resolution ink-jet or bubble-jet printer. Although a giclee image is not pressed onto the substrate, it is generally referred to as a print. Unlike a lithograph or a serigraph, a giclee does not put each color down all at once, but rather prints the image out one dot or one pixel at a time. By using a wide variety of colors, each put on individually dot per dot, the colors of the reproduction can be very exacting, sometimes even capturing the subtle differences in color brought about by the brush-strokes of the original. Because each of the applied colors are not placed onto the substrate all at once, the giclee process takes much longer than a lithograph or serigraph, which is one reason giclees tend to be in a higher price range.

There are other means of making reproductions, such as taking a mold of the original painting to capture the various thickness of the layering of the paint (including brush-strokes), making a casting of that mold, then printing onto that casting to give not only color fidelity, but also thickness fidelity. Gregory Editions calls this process brushstrokes, though I don't think there is a generally accepted term in the art printing industry for this process.




Matt Sissel Fine Art

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Proud to be an Objectivist -- one who follows Ayn Rand's philosophy of Objectivism: I've earned it.